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While there's a lot of claims and speculation about advantages to Synthetic Oils, most are really hard to substantiate. Part of the claims might be true, but it isn't because the oils are synthetic, they're just really well formulated. This is a partial listing of generic advantages to using a synthetic oil over conventional dino oil:
High temperature durability
The important advantages are high temperature durability and synthetic oils maintaining their lubricating qualities longer.
High Temperature Durability
Synths Maintain Their Lubricating Qualities Longer
Look at it this way. Conventional oils break down during normal use and lose their lubricating functionality as the miles pour on. They lose their functionality through oxididation, they build up cooked oil byproducts like sludge, and their inconsistent molecules sheer more easily. When an oil loses lubricating functionality, metal is wearing out metal. Which is hastening the day when you have to rebuild your top and bottom end. What you want is oil that is lubricating just as well when you take it out, as when you put it in.
Well, such an oil doesn't exist. But a synthetic which can be used with an extended oil change interval is sure to be working a lot better if you change it at the normal oil change interval like 2,500-3000 miles (or sooner if you really want to be conservative).
OK, So What Does All This Add Up To
One of the symptoms of wear is whether your bike uses oil between changes. Some people who started and continued to use synthetic oils by the first 5,000 miles claim that even at 30,000-50,000 miles, their bikes don't use oil between changes (they're taking the same amount out that they put in). This is only empiracle evidence that's really hard to verify, but if the claim is true it would substantiate the lower wear claim for synthetics.